Reliable Fasteners manufactures Fasteners like Hex Bolts, Allen Bolts, Machine Bolts, Lifting Bolts, Hex Screws, Socket Cap Screws, Grub Screws, Set Screws, Hex Nuts, Stud Bolts, Threaded Bars, Washer, Rings, Machined Components & Raw Bar Stock. We adapt a technical approach for every requirement. With integrated Team & Modern technology, we are able to entertain Client from all sector.
We propose both Cold Forged, Hot Forged & Bar Stock Fasteners with complete material compliance. Excelling exceptionally in Hot Forged & Bar Stock Fasteners, TorqBolt has rooted interest in Cold Forged range.
We offer complete material range from Low Carbon Alloy Steel, High Tensile Structural & Weathering Steel to Stainless Steel, Dual Phase Duplex Steel, Super Duplex, High Nickel Alloys, Titanium,Copper & Copper Alloys, Marine Grades, High Temperature Alloys with complete compliance with relative Material & Dimensional Standards Compliance with ISO, DIN, EN, IS ,ASTM, ASME, NACE etc.
Types Of Bolts
In Petro and chemical industry for flange connections Stud Bolts and Hex Bolts are used. The Stud Bolt is a threaded rod with 2 heavy hexagon nuts, while the Hex Bolt has a head with one nut. Nuts and head are both six sided.
Stud Bolts General
The quantity of bolts for a flange connection will be given by the number of bolt holes in a flange, diameter and length of bolts is dependent of flange type and Pressure Class of flange.
Stud Bolt length are defined in ASME B16.5 standard. The length in inches is equal to the effective thread length measured parallel to the axis, from the first to the first thread without the chamfers (points). First thread is defined as the intersection of the major diameter of the thread with the base of the point.
- The length of metric Stud Bolts measured parallel to axis, is the distance from each Stud Bolt, including the point.
- To allow the use of hydraulic tensioning equipment, larger dimension studs shall be often one diameter longer than “standard”. That bolts to have plastic end cap protection.
Threads Of Stud Bolts
Bolts threading are defined in ASME B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads, (UN and UNR Thread Form). The most common thread is a symmetrical form with a V-profile. The included angle is 60°. This form is widely used in the Unified thread (UN, UNC, UNF, UNRC, UNRF) form as the ISO / metric threads.
The advantage of a symmetrical threads is that they are easier to produce and inspect compared with non-symmetrical threads. These are typically used in general-purpose fasteners.
Thread series cover designations of diameter/pitch combinations that are measured by the number of threads per inch (TPI) applied to a single diameter.
Standard Thread Pitches
- Coarse thread series (UNC/UNRC) is the most widely used thread system and applied in most of the screws, bolts and nuts. Coarse threads are used for threads in low strength materials such as iron, mild steel, copper and softer alloy, aluminium, etc.. The coarse thread is also more tolerant in adverse conditions and facilitate quick assembly.
- Fine thread series (UNF/UNRF) is commonly used in precision applications and in there where require a higher tensile strength than the coarse thread series.
- 8 – Thread series (8UN) is the specified thread forming method for several ASTM standards including A193 B7, A193 B8/B8M, and A320. This series is mostly used for diameters one inch and above.
Hex nuts (dimensional data) are defined in ASME B18.2.2, and even as bolts the threading in ASME B1.1. Depending on a customer specification, nuts must be both sites chamfered or with on one side a washer-face.
Dimensions of above mentioned nuts, can be found on page Heavy Hex Nuts of this website.
Note: the height of a nut for Stud Bolts are the same as the diameter of the thread rod.
Materials For Stud Bolts
Dimensions from Stud Bolts are defined in the ASME B16.5 standard. The material qualities for studs are defined in the different ASTM standards, and are indicated by Grade. Frequently used grades are A193 for thread rods and A194 for the nuts.
ASTM A193 covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
ASTM A194 covers a variety of carbon, alloy, and martensitic and austenitic stainless steel nuts. These nuts are intended for high-pressure or high-temperature service, or both.
Below you will find as an example a table with materials and grades for flanges, thread rods (bolts) and nuts, arranged on design temperature, flanges, thread rods and recommended nuts.
|DESIGN TEMP.||FLG’S||GRADE THREAD RODS||GRADE NUTS|
|-195° to 102°C||ASTM A182 Gr. F304, F304L, F316, F316L, F321, F347||A320 Gr.B8 Class2||A194 Gr.8A|
|-101° to -47°C||ASTM A350 Gr.LF3||A320 Gr.L7||A194 Gr.7|
|-46° to -30°C||ASTM A350 Gr.LF2||A320 Gr.L7||A194 Gr.7|
|-29° to 427°C||ASTM A105||A193 Gr.B7||A194 Gr.2H|
|428° to 537°C||ASTM A182 Gr.F11, F22||A193 Gr.B16||A194 Gr.2H|
|538° to 648°C||ASTM A182 Gr.F11, F22||A193 Gr.B8 Class1||A194 Gr.8A|
|649° to 815°C||ASTM A182 Gr. F304H, F316H||A193 Gr.B8 Class1||A194 Gr.8A|
Marking Of Stud Bolts
Thread rods and nuts must be marked by the manufacturer with a unique identifier to identify the manufacturer or private label distributor, as appropriate. Below a number of ASTM examples.
Method For Calculating Stud Bolt Lengths
The Stud Bolt Theoretical Length Can Be Calculated
By Means Of The Formula: L = 2 (S + N + H + Rf) + G
- s = free threads (equals 1/3 time bolt diameter)
- n = nut height (equals nominal bolt diameter)
- h = flange (plate) thickness
- rf = height of raised face
- g = gasket thickness
AISI 303, AISI 304/304L/304N, AISI 309/309S, AISI 310/310S, AISI 316/316L/316Ti, AISI 317/317L, AISI 321/321H, AISI 347/347H, AISI 409, AISI 410/410S, AISI 416, AISI 420/420F, AISI 429, AISI 430/430F, AISI 446/446C, AISI 904L, Grade 660 Bolts.
Stainless Steels / Others
A193 B8, A320 B8
S 30400 / S30403
S 31000 S 31008
A193 B8M, A320 B8M
S 31600 / S31603
S 31700 / S31703
A193 B8C, A320 B8C
254 SMO ®
Other Stainless Steel Grades :
301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 309, 310, 316, 317, 321, 330, 347, 405, 410, 414, 416, 420, 430, 431, 440, 442, 446, 501, 502, Alloy 10 & 20, 17-4 PH, 17-7 PH, 17-10PH, PH 15-7Mo.
Our range of industrial coating and finishes includes:
|Zinc and Yellow/Bichromate||Zinga|
|Zinc Nickel||Chemical Galvanising|
|Nickel||Electroless Nickel Plating|
|Cermaic Coating (Xylar)||Magnigard|
|Hot Dip Galvanising||Molybdenum Disulphide|
Following types of coating are used for Fasteners
- Electrolytic galvanizing
- Hot-dip galvanizing
- Mechanical galvanizing
- Zinc phosphating
- Magnesium phosphating
- Cadmium plating
- Zinc-Nickel anticorrosion treatment
- Electroless Nickel plating
- Electrolytic Nickel plating
- PTFE Teflon Xylan coating
- Carbon-ceramic coatings (Xylar + Xylan)
- Hot Dipped Galvanizing Fasteners
- Phosphate Fasteners
- Teflon Fasteners
- Xylon Fasteners
- Zinc Fasteners
- Cadmium Fasteners
|Mirror Buffed||Hot Dipped Galvanizing||Epoxy Coating||Electro Polished||Passivation|
|Teflon Coating||Oxidized||Zinc Plating||Chrome Plating|
- (PTFE) a FluoroPolymer that is corrosive chemical and heat resistance, and the worlds most slippery surface.
- DACROMET 320 is a an aluminium-grey, non-electrolytic, thin coating for anti-rust protection of steel, cast iron and other ferrous metal parts.
HOT DIP GALVANISING
- Batch hot-dip galvanizing has been the most commonly used method of protecting steel products from corrosion.
- Nickel plating (Ni) is used for decoration and corrosion protection of steel, copper, aluminium and magnesium, for smoothing out surfaces.
- Cobalt plating is the process of plating one metal onto another by hydrolysis, most commonly for decorative purposes or to prevent corrosion of a metal.
- Electroplated cadmium is a robust and versatile metallic coating. Cadmium is a soft white metal that, when plated onto steel, cast iron.